Chromosome organization is crucial for genome function. Here, we present a method for visualizing chromosomal DNA at super-resolution and then integrating Hi-C data to produce three-dimensional models of chromosome organization. Using the super-resolution microscopy methods of OligoSTORM and OligoDNA-PAINT, we trace 8 megabases of human chromosome 19, visualizing structures ranging in size from a few kilobases to over a megabase. Focusing on chromosomal regions that contribute to compartments, we discover distinct structures that, in spite of considerable variability, can predict whether such regions correspond to active (A-type) or inactive (B-type) compartments. Imaging through the depths of entire nuclei, we capture pairs of homologous regions in diploid cells, obtaining evidence that maternal and paternal homologous regions can be differentially organized. Finally, using restraint-based modeling to integrate imaging and Hi-C data, we implement a method-integrative modeling of genomic regions (IMGR)-to increase the genomic resolution of our traces to 10 kb.
Nir G • Farabella I • Perez Estrada C • Ebeling CG • Beliveau BJ • Sasaki HM • Lee SD • Nguyen SC • McCole RB • Chattoraj S • Erceg J • AlHaj Abed J • Martins NMC • Nguyen HQ • Hannan MA • Russell S • Durand NC • Rao SSP • Kishi JY • Soler-Vila P • Di Pierro M • Onuchic JN • Callahan SP • Schreiner JM • Stuckey JA • Yin P • Aiden EL • Marti-Renom MA • Wu CT